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Thread: topping guide

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    Thumbs up topping guide

    been looking we don't have one , i can't see one .. here you go


    TOPPING Guide
    Introduction

    At first glance plants seem simple but when we take a closer look at how they work we soon realize that they are in fact very complex. They rely on many different mechanisms of development and survival and are quite versatile when it comes to adaptation. Plants orientate themselves according to sunlight by a mechanism that is called phototropism. This means that the plant will always try to find the best way to capture the light by changing its shape and redirecting its leaves. Branches elongate, shoots twist and curl around obstacles in order to reach the light. The roots in turn orientate themselves according to gravity, which is called gravitropism. This means that if you tilt a potted plant on its side, it will grow into an s-shaped curve, shoots towards the sky and roots towards the earth. We are however only interested in phototropism as we can utilize this natural response in order to shape the plant as we see fit.



    It sometimes helps to think of the plant as a factory, where the leaves are the solar panels that provide the energy needed for production. That in turn is directly dependant on the availability of raw materials (including CO2 and water), something that you have to provide for the plant. Some of the raw materials are absorbed through the roots, so they are just as important as the leaves. The production can be divided into growth (expansion) and upkeep or maintenance. Maintenance has higher priority, although the plant will also relocate energy from less productive areas to areas that are more efficient. You can assist the plant by pushing the production towards the top of the plant, where there is more light but more on this later. There are many other things that you need to factor in but assume that the plant is always trying to make the most out of what is available to it. Plants may appear to be static but they are in fact in a state of constant flux, where the energy equilibrium is always shifting and readjusting.



    Cannabis plants grow in the triangular shape of a Christmas tree in the wild. This shape is the most efficient when a plant is part of a densely packed community. Seeds usually fall close to the mother plant and tight clusters of plants are formed. Outdoors the sun rises and sets and moves across the sky during the day, so every part of the plant receives some light at one point or the other. This is not the case indoors, where the light source is stationary. The light always comes from the same angle, usually from above. This means that the natural shape of the plant is perhaps no longer the most energy efficient and most of the time the light does not reach the lower parts of the plant. Our artificial lights simply do not carry the same strength as the sun and parts of the plant are left in the shade or at least receive less light that the top shoots. Height is also an issue indoors as we have limited space for the plants to grow in and cannabis plants can grow very tall.

    That is why a number of techniques have been developed in order for us to gain more control over the plants but also in order to maximize their indoor potential. There are several ways to approach this problem and each technique provides a slightly different solution. Some of the techniques work well together and I will present them here so that you can decide which path to chose.

    Topping



    Topping the plant means that you remove the main shoot located on the central stem. By doing so you will encourage the plant to grow into a bush with a lot of shoots instead of one big main shoot that you get on the untopped Christmas tree. You will effectively invert the triangular shape of the plant from a pyramid to a cocktail glass.



    Topping the plant enables you to make the most out the the relatively limited light source that you have at your disposal in the indoor environment.

    The reason why the plant behaves this way when it is topped is because the centre of growth control is located in the apical meristem or main shoot. The main shoot sends suppressive hormones down to the lower or axillary shoots which stops them from growing rapidly. This is called apical dominance. This mechanism does not stop the lower branches from growing but as long as the main shoot is intact it will be largely favored as the plant increases in height. By removing the main shoot, the branches beneath it become free to grow at full rate in order to take its place. Please note that when the top shot is removed, the plant will no longer continue to grow in that location, so you have to make sure that there are enough secondary shoots to make up for the loss.

    The main shoot also has other functions. It communicates with photosensitive pigments located in the leaves. The information that these pigments receive dictates the behavior of the plant. Shoots on branches that are in the shade will be supplied with growth hormones in order to elongate and catch up with the rest and this might waste precious energy. I will explain more on this topic later on.

    Flowering in plants is triggered by two things. The first part of the system is called the Circadian Rhythm, which is basically an internal biological clock. This biological clock is an evolutionary response to light and darkness and is tightly linked with hormonal functions in the plant. Certain things are supposed to trigger at certain times of the day but also at certain times of the year. The second part involves hormone signaling mechanisms, messenger molecules and specifically encoded proteins that tell the plant to start budding based on the information that it receives from the environment. The plant knows when to trigger flowering because the sensory pigments in the leaves keep track of the photoperiod or the hours of daylight and relay this information to plant. The spectrum of the sunlight also changes with the seasons, which provides the plant with the information that it needs to trigger flowering. The sensory pigments also inform the plant of how much sunlight a certain part of the plant receives, which enables it to relocate energy and growth hormones to where they are needed. Shoots that are stuck in the shade will elongate and that means building more stem. This energy could have been spent on other things, like bud nodes, which is why we try to help the plant to become more productive by topping and training it.

    There are several types of hormones that regulate growth and behaviour. One of the most important growth hormones is called auxin. It originates in the main shoot and is part of a mechanism called the auxin transport system. This hormone plays a big part in the internal signaling and growth control mechanisms of the plant. It also regulates the formation and behavior of other growth hormones that are responsible for everything from root growth to the formation of flowers.

    By removing the main shoot, the communication between the leaves and the main shoot ends, effectively canceling out the apical dominance. The result is that the plant assigns the next shoots in line to the job. This means that the smaller shoots on the branches beneath the cut start growing faster and gain size. Since there is no more apical dominance, the plant will grow into a bush because the newly appointed main shoots all have equal priority. These shoots usually grow very slowly when the plant is left untopped. The new main shoots will in turn suppress the shoots that are located further down on the main stem, so sometimes it is best to top the plant several times in order for it to fan out properly. Some say that it is best to top the plant at night when most of the hormones have been sent to the roots. This means that there is a smaller chance of the plant being stunted after the main shoot has been removed.



    There will be a short period of time when the plant is in something that could be called a state of confusion. It will stop all activity until it can figure out what is going on. It will resume vegetative growth as soon as the hormonal functions are up and running again and the dominant shoots have been appointed. It should take no more than a few days for this to happen, a week at the most.

    Most of the time this transition is quite fast but some plants that respond poorly to topping might display stunted growth for a while. It is possible to top a plant many times, each time the number of dominant shoots will double. Give your plants some time to grow before you top them. If they are topped too early they might get stunted for a while, mainly due to the loss of photosynthetic tissue. I do top them quite early sometimes as you can probably tell from the pictures that I have included. Go by your feelings, once the plants look strong enough you can start topping and training them. Look for secondary growth at the lower nodes, that usually means that it is safe to top the plant. When the plant has formed the fifth pair of leaves, it should be ok for you to remove the main shoot.



    This is a good way of training the plant if one wants to make the most out of the space available. Topping is also a good way of slowing down plants that tend to stretch a lot as each time the plant is topped it will redirect energy to a greater number of dominant shoots. The new shoots will never grow as large as the untopped main shoot will but they will most likely yield more in total.



    There is also a technique called FIM (Fuck I Missed) topping. By leaving a small portion of the growth on the main shoot intact, the plant will for some reason assume that four shoots, instead of two, are the dominant shoots and they will grow evenly in height. The success of this method is usually up to the luck of the draw but you should make the cut circular so that the remaining tissue forms a cup. Similar results can however be achieved by topping the plant twice.

    worth a read

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  3. #2

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    Oh thanks for that oxy you little belter you 💋

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    Nice thread oxy, sure will help alot of people out

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    OXY!!!!!!!!!!!!
    The legend strikes again!!!

    OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSSHHHHHH!!!!!!!!!!
    Thank you!

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    Nice guide Oxy
    "Accuse the other side of that which you are guilty."
    (Joseph Goebbels)

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    hello thanks all , i couldn't find one . made this then found mrg's .. dooh!!

    its all for you mrs , you made me make it , thought it would help you

    Quote Originally Posted by She's-a-Lady View Post
    OXY!!!!!!!!!!!!
    The legend strikes again!!!

    OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSSHHHHHH!!!!!!!!!!
    Thank you!

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    Oxy,
    Im gonna have to keep learning patience too!
    Perfect guide, pictures make me happy!!!

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    Quote Originally Posted by Oxy View Post
    been looking we don't have one , i can't see one .. here you go


    TOPPING Guide
    Introduction

    At first glance plants seem simple but when we take a closer look at how they work we soon realize that they are in fact very complex. They rely on many different mechanisms of development and survival and are quite versatile when it comes to adaptation. Plants orientate themselves according to sunlight by a mechanism that is called phototropism. This means that the plant will always try to find the best way to capture the light by changing its shape and redirecting its leaves. Branches elongate, shoots twist and curl around obstacles in order to reach the light. The roots in turn orientate themselves according to gravity, which is called gravitropism. This means that if you tilt a potted plant on its side, it will grow into an s-shaped curve, shoots towards the sky and roots towards the earth. We are however only interested in phototropism as we can utilize this natural response in order to shape the plant as we see fit.



    It sometimes helps to think of the plant as a factory, where the leaves are the solar panels that provide the energy needed for production. That in turn is directly dependant on the availability of raw materials (including CO2 and water), something that you have to provide for the plant. Some of the raw materials are absorbed through the roots, so they are just as important as the leaves. The production can be divided into growth (expansion) and upkeep or maintenance. Maintenance has higher priority, although the plant will also relocate energy from less productive areas to areas that are more efficient. You can assist the plant by pushing the production towards the top of the plant, where there is more light but more on this later. There are many other things that you need to factor in but assume that the plant is always trying to make the most out of what is available to it. Plants may appear to be static but they are in fact in a state of constant flux, where the energy equilibrium is always shifting and readjusting.



    Cannabis plants grow in the triangular shape of a Christmas tree in the wild. This shape is the most efficient when a plant is part of a densely packed community. Seeds usually fall close to the mother plant and tight clusters of plants are formed. Outdoors the sun rises and sets and moves across the sky during the day, so every part of the plant receives some light at one point or the other. This is not the case indoors, where the light source is stationary. The light always comes from the same angle, usually from above. This means that the natural shape of the plant is perhaps no longer the most energy efficient and most of the time the light does not reach the lower parts of the plant. Our artificial lights simply do not carry the same strength as the sun and parts of the plant are left in the shade or at least receive less light that the top shoots. Height is also an issue indoors as we have limited space for the plants to grow in and cannabis plants can grow very tall.

    That is why a number of techniques have been developed in order for us to gain more control over the plants but also in order to maximize their indoor potential. There are several ways to approach this problem and each technique provides a slightly different solution. Some of the techniques work well together and I will present them here so that you can decide which path to chose.

    Topping



    Topping the plant means that you remove the main shoot located on the central stem. By doing so you will encourage the plant to grow into a bush with a lot of shoots instead of one big main shoot that you get on the untopped Christmas tree. You will effectively invert the triangular shape of the plant from a pyramid to a cocktail glass.



    Topping the plant enables you to make the most out the the relatively limited light source that you have at your disposal in the indoor environment.

    The reason why the plant behaves this way when it is topped is because the centre of growth control is located in the apical meristem or main shoot. The main shoot sends suppressive hormones down to the lower or axillary shoots which stops them from growing rapidly. This is called apical dominance. This mechanism does not stop the lower branches from growing but as long as the main shoot is intact it will be largely favored as the plant increases in height. By removing the main shoot, the branches beneath it become free to grow at full rate in order to take its place. Please note that when the top shot is removed, the plant will no longer continue to grow in that location, so you have to make sure that there are enough secondary shoots to make up for the loss.

    The main shoot also has other functions. It communicates with photosensitive pigments located in the leaves. The information that these pigments receive dictates the behavior of the plant. Shoots on branches that are in the shade will be supplied with growth hormones in order to elongate and catch up with the rest and this might waste precious energy. I will explain more on this topic later on.

    Flowering in plants is triggered by two things. The first part of the system is called the Circadian Rhythm, which is basically an internal biological clock. This biological clock is an evolutionary response to light and darkness and is tightly linked with hormonal functions in the plant. Certain things are supposed to trigger at certain times of the day but also at certain times of the year. The second part involves hormone signaling mechanisms, messenger molecules and specifically encoded proteins that tell the plant to start budding based on the information that it receives from the environment. The plant knows when to trigger flowering because the sensory pigments in the leaves keep track of the photoperiod or the hours of daylight and relay this information to plant. The spectrum of the sunlight also changes with the seasons, which provides the plant with the information that it needs to trigger flowering. The sensory pigments also inform the plant of how much sunlight a certain part of the plant receives, which enables it to relocate energy and growth hormones to where they are needed. Shoots that are stuck in the shade will elongate and that means building more stem. This energy could have been spent on other things, like bud nodes, which is why we try to help the plant to become more productive by topping and training it.

    There are several types of hormones that regulate growth and behaviour. One of the most important growth hormones is called auxin. It originates in the main shoot and is part of a mechanism called the auxin transport system. This hormone plays a big part in the internal signaling and growth control mechanisms of the plant. It also regulates the formation and behavior of other growth hormones that are responsible for everything from root growth to the formation of flowers.

    By removing the main shoot, the communication between the leaves and the main shoot ends, effectively canceling out the apical dominance. The result is that the plant assigns the next shoots in line to the job. This means that the smaller shoots on the branches beneath the cut start growing faster and gain size. Since there is no more apical dominance, the plant will grow into a bush because the newly appointed main shoots all have equal priority. These shoots usually grow very slowly when the plant is left untopped. The new main shoots will in turn suppress the shoots that are located further down on the main stem, so sometimes it is best to top the plant several times in order for it to fan out properly. Some say that it is best to top the plant at night when most of the hormones have been sent to the roots. This means that there is a smaller chance of the plant being stunted after the main shoot has been removed.



    There will be a short period of time when the plant is in something that could be called a state of confusion. It will stop all activity until it can figure out what is going on. It will resume vegetative growth as soon as the hormonal functions are up and running again and the dominant shoots have been appointed. It should take no more than a few days for this to happen, a week at the most.

    Most of the time this transition is quite fast but some plants that respond poorly to topping might display stunted growth for a while. It is possible to top a plant many times, each time the number of dominant shoots will double. Give your plants some time to grow before you top them. If they are topped too early they might get stunted for a while, mainly due to the loss of photosynthetic tissue. I do top them quite early sometimes as you can probably tell from the pictures that I have included. Go by your feelings, once the plants look strong enough you can start topping and training them. Look for secondary growth at the lower nodes, that usually means that it is safe to top the plant. When the plant has formed the fifth pair of leaves, it should be ok for you to remove the main shoot.



    This is a good way of training the plant if one wants to make the most out of the space available. Topping is also a good way of slowing down plants that tend to stretch a lot as each time the plant is topped it will redirect energy to a greater number of dominant shoots. The new shoots will never grow as large as the untopped main shoot will but they will most likely yield more in total.



    There is also a technique called FIM (Fuck I Missed) topping. By leaving a small portion of the growth on the main shoot intact, the plant will for some reason assume that four shoots, instead of two, are the dominant shoots and they will grow evenly in height. The success of this method is usually up to the luck of the draw but you should make the cut circular so that the remaining tissue forms a cup. Similar results can however be achieved by topping the plant twice.

    worth a read
    Why Cnt I see the pics

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  17. #9

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    they are there grow, i see them,,, can everyone else?

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    I'm seeing, I need to keep seeing this thread too

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    Yup buddy i can see all the pics ..
    Perfect guide matey

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  24. #13

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    Quote Originally Posted by MrG View Post
    Mines better
    whoop whoop !! mine is waffle free, say it as it is.... straight to the point .. if it works who cares which is best... i have done my bit.. cheers for the spam mr, you should know better tut tut !! lol i don't mind i'm fucking with ya ..

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    Quote Originally Posted by Oxy View Post
    whoop whoop !! mine is waffle free, say it as it is.... straight to the point .. if it works who cares which is best... i have done my bit.. cheers for the spam mr, you should know better tut tut !! lol i don't mind i'm fucking with ya ..
    Lol I wouldn't know I didn't write mine
    Noobs love a bit of waffle to chomp on. Most of mine could be summed up in a paragraph. Nothing like 9 pages of defs though eh

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  28. #15

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    pmsl i say no more, your mad .. i have to be honest i love a good waffle tho........in the morning with an egg..

    its all for fun

    Quote Originally Posted by MrG View Post
    Lol I wouldn't know I didn't write mine

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    hey guys I gatta question about topping autos? 'eh
    does anybody do that because they have a short grow space?

    Thanks for effort to respond 'eh? ha ha it'll save me startin a thread to ask that

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    Thumbs down

    I don't recommend it it will stunt there growth, they don't live long enough to recover from the stress. But you can try it post your results if you do.

    Autoflower plants have a set life span. For sake of discussion let's say your autoflower will live 120 days. Anything that causes stress during that time can potentially slow growth and diminish yield. Consider every day of growth lost due to recovery may never be regained.

    Topping, FIMing, defoilating, transplanting and other stress factors can temporarily stunt growth. Even over-watering, under-watering, nutrient balance and pH issues, especially in the early vegging days, can impact your final yield.
    sorry
    but i have never tried an auto ,,, ^^^^^^^^ just what i have read up on them .. when i began growing..
    Last edited by Oxy; 15-12-14 at 12:24 AM.

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    Thanks oxy
    U've read much more than me, Im just astratin to gather auto-info as I have a auto seed now
    so I got to start thinkin about how to go about it 'eh

    the only thing I think I know is not to repot autos, just start in the finish pot 'eh ha

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    Loki tops his autos and gets very good results from them.

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    Thumbs up

    cheers mr,, please get him here to tell all, so we can set record straight, and put this to bed ??, i have nothing at all xp with them ,, cheers for the info chap
    Last edited by Oxy; 15-12-14 at 03:10 PM.

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